Description. A pea is a most commonly green, occasionally golden yellow, or infrequently purple pod-shaped vegetable, widely grown as a cool-season vegetable crop. The seeds may be planted as soon as the soil temperature reaches 10 °C (50 °F), with the plants growing best at temperatures of 13 to 18 °C (55 to 64 °F)..

Pisum sativum is an annual plant that has a one-year life cycle. It's a cool-season crop that's grown all over the world; depending on where you live, you can plant it anywhere from winter to early summer. A pea weighs between 0.1 and 0.36 grams on average. Immature peas (and the tender pod in snow peas) are used as a vegetable, fresh, frozen, or canned; varieties of the species generally known as field peas are grown to produce dry peas shelled from a matured pod. These are the ingredients in pease porridge and pea soup, which were staples of medieval cuisine; in Europe, eating new immature green peas was an early modern culinary invention.